...mozda ti i ovo pomogne, skinute sa jednog sajta...
"Gerunds are nouns formed from verbs. There are two types of gerund: present gerunds, which look like present participles (e.g. "soaring" and "falling") and past gerunds, which are formed by preceding a past participle with the word "having" (e.g. "having forgotten" and "having neglected").
As covered above in Section 1, there are two types of gerund: a present gerund and a past gerund. Below are some examples:
Present gerunds look like present participles (the verb form which ends "ing"). Present gerunds often express the idea of "while".
Reading the paper, he reached for the remote control and changed channel.
("Reading" is a present gerund - "While reading the paper, he reached...")
Referring to your recent letter, I no longer own racing pigeons.
("Referring" is a present gerund.)
Weeping, the young girl showed her arm to her mother.
("Weeping" is a present gerund - "While weeping, the young girl...")
Past gerunds take the form: "Having" + past participle
Having informed the baker of his mistake, I was given two more loaves.
("Having informed" is a past gerund.)
Having started this project, Fergal would like to see it through to its end.
("Having started" is a past gerund.) tvoja druga recenica bi glasila "Being informed of his mistake, the baker gave me two more loaves." - recenica ima specifican ritam i mora pazljivo da se koristi, a jos mora de se vodi racuna i o tome da se vremena pravilno poredjaju
BEWARE DANGLING MODIFIERS!
Gerunds, both present and past, must be logically attached to the subject of the sentence. This is less confusing than it sounds. For example:
Having entered the square, the statue came into view.
(This is incorrect. The writer did not mean that the statue
entered the square.)
Having entered the square, we could clearly see the statue.
(This is correct. "We" entered the square, and "we" could see the
statue. The subject of the sentence ("we") is logically
attached to the gerund ("Having entered").
Referring to your recent letter, the pigeons have all been sold.
(This is incorrect. The pigeons cannot refer to a letter.)
Referring to your recent letter, I can confirm that the pigeons
have all been sold.
(This is correct. "I" am "referring", and "I" "can confirm".)
When the gerund is not logically attached to the subject of the sentence (as in the first and third examples above), it is known as a "dangling modifier"."...(nastavlja se u nedogled...)
Edited by Mr.Smith, 19 April 2006 - 21:33.